Onion Creek Ranch, Lohn, Texas
Suzanne W. Gasparotto, Onion Creek Ranch, Lohn, TX
Lohn, Texas
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TOXOID OR ANTI-TOXIN?

ANTI-TOXINS AND TOXOIDS
Why You Must Know The Difference

Vaccines are toxoids; they prevent disease. Anti-toxins are used when a problem already exists. The two most frequently-used injectable medications used with goats that come in both toxoid and anti-toxin form are the overeating disease vaccine and the tetanus vaccine.

Toxoids are used for long term protection. The vaccine for overeating disease combined with tetanus prevention is usually called "CD/T." These letters represent protection against overeating disease caused by clostridium perfringens Types C & D. The "T" part of the vaccine provides long-term protection against tetanus.

CD/T, tetanus, C&D, and pneumonia toxoids commonly used with goats are given to unvaccinated adults and kids twice, 21 to 30 days apart. Booster vaccinations are then given annually to vaccinated goats, although some producers are boosting this protection twice a year. Always booster pregnant does six weeks before kidding to provide immunological protection for the newborn kids via their dams' milk. Newborn kids are born without a functioning immune system. Many producers use the combination CD/T toxoid vaccine rather than the two individual vaccines of C&D toxoid and tetanus toxoid.

Anti-toxin vaccines are used in medical emergencies when immediate but short-term protection is required. Goat producers use two anti-toxin injectables: C&D Anti-Toxin and Tetanus Anti-Toxin. C&D Anti-Toxin should be used whenever overeating disease, ruminal acidosis, or any rumen-related toxicity is suspected to be the cause of the goat's illness. As with the vaccines (toxoids), the anti-toxins are used SQ (sub-cutaneously, i.e. under the skin). C&D Anti-Toxin is very safe to use and has a wide margin of error. It is one of the few medications which can be used without fear of hurting the animal. There is no such thing as a pneumonia "anti-toxin." When a goat develops pneumonia, antibiotics are required.

Tetanus Anti-Toxin is used after castrations are done (wethering a goat), for injuries (bites, cuts, puncture wounds), and when tetanus-like symptoms are present (jaw is locked and mouth won't open, goat's neck is dramatically bent to the side and unable to be straightened, eyes unfocused, difficulty standing). Tetanus is commonly called Lockjaw.

Temporary protection provided by anti-toxins lasts about 7 to 14 days. If the goat survives the illness, the producer must wait at least five days after this two-week time frame and begin the two-vaccination toxoid series again, because the anti-toxin has cancelled the benefits of the vaccine.

Vaccines (toxoids) will sometimes cause a knot or abscess known as an injection-site granuloma. This is evidence that the goat's immune system is having a good response to the vaccine. These are "killed" vaccines so the organisms being vaccinated against are not active in these granulomas. Injection-site granulomas usually don't go away on their own. I wait several weeks after vaccinating to be sure that a good reaction to the vaccine has occurred, then I lance, clean, and flush the granulomas with iodine.

Suzanne W. Gasparotto, Onion Creek Ranch, Texas 10/2/12

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All information provided in these articles is based either on personal experience or information provided by others whose treatments and practices have been discussed fully with a vet for accuracy and effectiveness before passing them on to readers.

In all cases, it is your responsibility to obtain veterinary services and advice before using any of the information provided in these articles. Suzanne Gasparotto is not a veterinarian.Neither tennesseemeatgoats.com nor any of the contributors to this website will be held responsible for the use of any information contained herein.

The author, Suzanne Gasparotto, hereby grants to local goat publications and club newsletters, permission to reprint articles published on the Onion Creek Ranch website under these conditions: THE ARTICLE MUST BE REPRODUCED IN ITS ENTIRETY AND THE AUTHOR'S NAME, ADDRESS, AND CONTACT INFORMATION MUST BE INCLUDED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE REPRINT. We would appreciate notification from any clubs or publications when the articles are used. (A copy of the newsletter or publication would also be a welcome addition to our growing library of goat related information!)

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