Onion Creek Ranch, Lohn, Texas
Suzanne W. Gasparotto, Onion Creek Ranch, Lohn, TX
Lohn, Texas
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TOXOIDS & ANTI-TOXINS -- WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?

Toxoids are vaccines. Toxoids are used to provide long-term protection against disease.

Anti-toxins are used to try to solve a problem that already exists.

The two most frequently-used injectable vaccines (toxoids) for goats are the Overeating Disease vaccine and the Tetanus vaccine. The vaccine for Overeating Disease combined with Tetanus prevention is called "CD/T." These letters represent protection against overeating disease caused by clostridium perfringens Types C & D. The "T" part of the vaccine provides long-term protection against Tetanus.

Anti-toxin vaccines are used in medical emergencies when immediate but short-term protection is required. I use two anti-toxin injectables: C&D Anti-Toxin and Tetanus Anti-Toxin. C&D Anti-Toxin should be used whenever overeating disease, ruminal acidosis, or any rumen-related toxicity is suspected to be the cause of the goat's illness. These anti-toxins are used SQ (sub-cutaneously, i.e. under the skin). C&D Anti-Toxin is very safe to use and has a wide margin of error.

There is no such thing as a pneumonia anti-toxin. I use the pasteurella pneumonia vaccine Presponse HM for cattle *off-label* to prevent pneumonia in goats because the pneumonia vaccine for goats is very old and provides poor protection. Vaccinate with the pneumonia toxoid Presponse HM annually. When a goat develops pneumonia, prescription antibiotics are required.

Tetanus Anti-Toxin is used when castrating (wethering a goat), disbudding, injuries (bites, cuts, puncture wounds), and when tetanus-like symptoms are present (jaw is locked and mouth won't open, goat's neck is hard bent to the side and unable to be straightened, eyes unfocused, difficulty standing). Tetanus is commonly called Lockjaw. Some of these symptoms can indicate other illnesses, so you must diagnose correctly.

Temporary protection provided by anti-toxins lasts about 7 to 14 days. If the goat survives the illness, you must wait at least five days after this two-week time frame and begin the two-injection toxoid vaccination again, because the anti-toxin has cancelled the benefits of the vaccine (toxoid).

Vaccines (toxoids) will sometimes cause a knot or abscess known as an injection-site granuloma. This is evidence that the goat's immune system is having a good response to the vaccine. These are "killed" vaccines so the organisms being vaccinated against are not active in these grandulomas. They usually go away on their own after several months.

Always have C&D Anti-toxin and Tetanus Anti-toxin in your goat-medicine refrigerator.

Suzanne W. Gasparotto, Onion Creek Ranch, Texas 090123

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Important! Please Read This Notice!

All information provided in these articles is based either on personal experience or information provided by others whose treatments and practices have been discussed fully with a vet for accuracy and effectiveness before passing them on to readers.

In all cases, it is your responsibility to obtain veterinary services and advice before using any of the information provided in these articles. Suzanne Gasparotto is not a veterinarian.Neither tennesseemeatgoats.com nor any of the contributors to this website will be held responsible for the use of any information contained herein.

The author, Suzanne Gasparotto, hereby grants to local goat publications and club newsletters, permission to reprint articles published on the Onion Creek Ranch website under these conditions: THE ARTICLE MUST BE REPRODUCED IN ITS ENTIRETY AND THE AUTHOR'S NAME, ADDRESS, AND CONTACT INFORMATION MUST BE INCLUDED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE REPRINT. We would appreciate notification from any clubs or publications when the articles are used. (A copy of the newsletter or publication would also be a welcome addition to our growing library of goat related information!)

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