Onion Creek Ranch, Lohn, Texas
Suzanne W. Gasparotto, Onion Creek Ranch, Lohn, TX
Lohn, Texas
Onion Creek Ranch "Chevon, cabrito, goat... No matter what you call it, it is the HEALTHY red meat™
Onion Creek Ranch
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GOAT MEDICATIONS & HOW TO USE THEM

Most medications used to treat goats, whether they are prescription or over the counter, are "off label" or "extra label" usage. Few medications have been specifically formulated for and approved for use with goats. Pharmaceutical companies may decide not to spend the money and time needed to get a product approved for use with goats because they don't see a market large enough to earn back the costs involved and make a profit. Lack of government approval does not necessarily mean that such products are dangerous or ineffective. In many areas of the USA it is unfortunately true that veterinarians know little to nothing about goats. Therefore, goat producers tend to rely on each other for the information and help that they need to raise healthy goats.

I am NOT a vet. I have been raising goats since 1990, and I have been fortunate to have a few excellent vets upon whose advice I rely and who are experienced in treating goats. Use the information provided in this article at your own risk and only AFTER you have consulted with a qualified goat veterinarian. The medications are presented in alphabetical order; some of the medications are interchangeable with others, i.e. they provide the same treatment benefits but are being offered because specific products may not be available in all areas. I have not addressed withdrawal times for those producers concerned about meat and milk contamination. Some of the products may not be approved for use in food animals; Gentamycin and Baytril (but not Baytril 100 for use with cattle) in particular are restricted from usage in food animals in certain breeds and jurisdictions. You must check with your local vet to find out what you can lawfully use. The products listed below and comments about them are based upon my personal experiences or those of vets with whom I have a working relationship. Jeffers 1-800-533-3377 www.jefferspet.com carries all of these non-prescription items.

A-180 (donofloxacin) - Vet prescription. Injectable respiratory antibiotic (Pfizer). Neither I nor my vet have been very pleased with this product. Nuflor Gold and Excenel RTU (listed herein below) have worked better for us.

Albadry Plus - Teat infusion medication containing procaine penicillin and novobiocin sodium for treating mastitis in non-lactating goats. Also used to dry up lactating goats. Also can be applied topically to staph infections. You never really know which mastitis medication is going to work unless you have the udder's contents tested to find out which bacteria is causing the problem.

Albon (Sulfadimethoxine 12.5%, or its generic equivalent DiMethox 12.5%) - These products are the drug of choice for preventing and treating Coccidiosis. Give orally undiluted to kids at a rate of 3-5cc and to adults at a rate of 5-10cc for five consecutive days. Mixing with drinking water as directed on the label is another option, but I recommend against it. Sick goats should be treated individually with oral dosing for five consecutive days. Buying the gallon jug is the most cost-effective purchase. Will not work with automatic waterers due to continual dilution of the product.

Alushield - Aluminum-based water-resistant aerosol bandage for topical use only.

Banamine (FluMeglumine) - Vet prescription required. Anti-inflammatory that helps reduce fever, soothes irritation in the gastro-intestinal tract (gut) when diarrhea or other gut-related digestive illnesses occur, relieves pain and soreness associated with animal bites and other injuries. Use no more frequently than every 12 hours (stomach ulcers are possible) unless goat is close to dying and risk is worth taking. Dosage is 1 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM, but can be used at a rate of 1/2 cc per 25-30 lbs body weight if necessary. A newborn kid with fever at Onion Creek Ranch would receive an injection of no more than 2/10 cc IM. Keeps best in hot climates when refrigerated. Never be without this essential medication.

Baytril 100 (Enrofloxacin 100 mg/ml) - Vet prescription. Baytril 100 (not Baytril 2.27%) is approved for use in livestock. ( cattle in certain circumstances). Usage in goats is "off-label" or "extra-label," but this antibiotic is being used in goats by some veterinarians. The appropriate IM dosage is 4 cc's per 100 lbs. of body weight for five consecutive days. Do not use the single-use dosage; goats need five-consecutive-day application. This medication is very effective against gut-related illnesses and works synergistically (better together than individually) with SMZ (sulfadimethoxazine with trimethoprim). Some jurisdictions prohibit use of Baytril or Baytril 100 in any form (injectable or tablets) in food-production animals; check with your vet. If you have a sick goat on which no other antibiotic is working, Baytril 100 is the ultimate in effective antibiotics. Do not use without vet supervision.

Biosol (Neomycin Sulfate) - Over-the-counter sulfa-based antibiotic for using with scouring kids and adults when Coccidiosis is not the underlying illness. Works effectively against E.Coli and other digestive-system bacterial infections. For kids, give 3 cc orally every 12 hours until diarrhea has stopped and feces is normal. For adult goats, use 5 cc to 10 cc orally and as directed for usage in kids. Do not overdose; constipation can result.

BoSe and MuSe - Vet prescriptions are required for both products. ( MuSe should not be used with goats; it is too strong and is a horse medication. Use BoSe with goats.) Injectable medication for selenium deficiency. Since selenium deficiency exists at different levels throughout the United States, it is critical to follow your veterinarian's directions on the usage of these products, as well as supplemental loose minerals containing selenium. See GOAT MEDICINE by Dr. Mary Smith for a map of the United States indicating areas of selenium deficiency. Most of the East Coast, down to Florida and westward through the Great Lakes region, plus the West Coast, including California and parts of Nevada and Idaho, are selenium deficient to different degrees. Selenium deficiency shows itself in goats most often in the form of weak rear legs in kids. Older goats look "pathetic," don't put on weight, have weak legs, and generally stay in poor condition and poor health. Selenium deficiency causes Nutritional Muscular Dystrophy (White Muscle Disease). Selenium is toxic at low dosages, and the dosing margin of safety is narrow. The addition of selenium to feed is controlled by US law. In some areas, producers only need to provide loose minerals containing selenium. In other regions, selenium injections are necessary. When BoSe injections are required, they are usually given at birth and again at one month of age (one-half cc IM). Pregnant does usually receive injections four to six weeks before kidding, and bucks usually are vaccinated twice a year. Adult dosage of BoSe is 2-1/2 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight given IM. It is critical that producers understand that selenium supplements must be determined and supervised by your veterinarian because selenium levels vary widely across the USA.

C&D Antitoxin - Over-the-counter made-for-goats product that can be safely used for many problems. Severe diarrhea in very young kids, toxicity caused by plants, poisons (bites, overeating disease, bloat, ruminal acidosis, and ingestion of toxic subtances like azaleas and antifreeze are several examples), one of the products administered to combat Floppy Kid Syndrome . . . these are a few of the applications of this very versatile product which is almost impossible to overdose. This product provides short-term protection (about 12 hours) but works quickly towards solving the immediate problem. Follow label directions. Always have this product on hand; there is no substitute for it. Must be refrigerated. C&D Antitoxin negates any protection previously given by the CD/T vaccine. Therefore, the producer must wait for at least five days after completion of C&D Antitoxin therapy and re-vaccinate the animal with the initial CD/T injection and the booster 30 days thereafter.

CD/T (Clostridium Perfringens Types C&D & Tetanus Toxoid - Tetanus Toxoid)- Over-the-counter made-for-goats product to provide long-term protection against overeating disease (types C&D) and tetanus. Newborn kids and newly-purchased animals should be vaccinated with 2 cc (kids at one month of age) and then a second vaccination should be given 30 days later (kids at two months of age). Two injections 30 days apart are required in order to provide long-term protection. Annually thereafter, one injection of 2 cc per animal will renew the protection. Give SQ. Do not be surprised if it makes a knot at the injection site. This is the body's reaction to the vaccination, and in most cases, it eventually goes away. CD/T is one of the few medications which is not based upon body weight. Every goat, from one month of age up to the biggest buck, should receive 2 cc SQ. Must be stored under refrigeration.

Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) vaccine for goats - Introduced in May 2012 by Texas Vet Lab of San Angelo, Texas, see the May 2012 and July2012 issues of MeatGoatMania for articles on how to use this wonderful product. Over the counter in some states; prescription item in other states. Jeffers can tell you what each state requires. Call 1-800-533-3377 and ask to speak with their CL vaccine expert.

Chondroprotec - Topical skin regrowing medication. See my article in the January 2013 issue of MeatGoatMania to read about and see photos of this amazing product. Vet script.

Colostrum Replacers and Supplements - Do not confuse these two types of products. Newborns must have colostrum during the first hours after birth. If the dam is colostrum deficient, the producer must use a colostrum replacer. The best colostrum replacer is colostrum saved (and frozen) from does on your property who have already kidded. This colostrum will have the antibodies needed to provide the kids the needed immunity to the infectious organisms present in your particular location. If you don't have a supply of frozen colostrum, then you must use a commercially-prepared goat colostrum replacer (*not* "supplement"). *A reminder: Do not use colostrum or colostrum replacer beyond the first 48 hours of the kid's life. Switch to goat's milk or goat's milk replacer. Colostrum has already done its job for the newborn after 48 hours and the kid's body can better digest goat's milk.

CoRid (amprollium) - Over-the-counter product for preventing and treating eliminating coccidiosis. Comes in granular packets and gallon liquid. This product is a thiamine inhibitor, and most professionals are recommending against it use. Albon or its generic equivalent Sulfadimethoxine 12.5% (Dimethox 12.5%) is preferred over CoRid. If you must use CoRid, buy the gallon liquid and maintain better control over dosages. Follow package directions. Rule of Thumb: For prevention of coccidia, use 2 oz. per 15 gallons of water; for treatment, use 3 oz. CoRid per 15 gallons of water. Limit the goats' water supply to one source and treat for five consecutive days. For animals severely infected with the coccidia parasite, mix 1 oz CoRid in 5 oz. water and orally drench the sick goats twice a day for five consecutive days; kids should receive 20-40 cc of this mixture twice a day, while adults should receive 40-80 cc. This is a higher-than-label dosage but what it takes to control coccidia in goats. Use Thiamine (Vitamin B1) daily dosing at 4 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight given IM or SQ when using CoRid.

Dewormers, Feed-based - Feed-based dewormers are usually not effective, in my opinion. Dewormers are dosed based on an individual goat's bodyweight; there is no accurate way to do this with feed-based dewormers. Further, the goat needing the dewormer the worst will also be the least aggressive goat who will get less feed, therefore a lower dosage of the feed-based dewormer. Unless you can control the precise amount of feed that each goat receives, I recommend against using feed-based dewormers.

Dexamethasone - Vet prescription. Cortico-steroid. Use sparingly, with great care, and preferably under the direction of a vet. Dex can have bad side effects. Used for swelling and inflammation once infection is under control. Do not use if broken bones exist, because it interferes with bone repair. Do not use on pregnant does unless you are deliberately trying to induce labor. Used to induce labor in pregnant does when the slow introduction of labor over a 48-to-72 hour period is desired (example: Ketosis). Dex interferes with the functioning of the goat's immune system. Usage of this drug must be tapered off slowly; serious problems can occur if Dex is given in large amounts and then suddenly stopped. Tapering off over five days is a normal procedure, i.e. reducing the dosage each day for five consecutive days. Dosage varies depending upon the problem being treated. Keeps best in hot climates when refrigerated.

Dextrose Solution (50%) - Although this is an over-the-counter IV product in a bottle, use 50% Dextrose Solution with weak newborns by slowing dropping one or two cc in the mouth and under the tongue for quick energy. Can be mixed half and half with water and offered short-term to weak goats or kids who are either having trouble digesting milk or have overeaten on milk (Floppy Kid Syndrome) and need to be taken off milk for several days until the toxicity caused by undigested milk has been removed from their bodies.

Diatomaceous Earth (DE) - This product is being used by some producers as a "natural" dewormer. DE does not kill internal parasites (worms). There is no scientific evidence of DE's effectiveness in controlling internal parasites. It is somewhat effective on external parasites like flies. Every controlled test done to determine efficacy of this product in killing internal parasites (worms) in goats has failed. If a producer chooses to use DE as a food additive, make certain that "food-grade" DE is purchased and use DE in conjunction with an ethical (commercially-produced) deworming product. Check fecal samples regularly for worms while using DE.

Dopram V- Vet prescription. Eliminates respiratory distress in newborns caused by troubled births, including C-sections. Drop 2/10 cc under kid's tongue immediately upon birth to stimulate lung activity. Use on "pulled" kids since the normal squeezing of the body during the delivery process is altered. This liquid medication keeps best under refrigeration. Always have Dopram V on hand.

Draxxin (tulothromycin) - Vet prescription. Injectable respiratory antibiotic. Very expensive product that purports to be a one-time-only usage antibiotic. Because goats have the fastest metabolism of all ruminants, they need to be dosed daily. Nuflor Gold and Excenel RTU given daily work in my herd and are far less expensive. I don't recommend using Draxxin.

Electrolytes, Oral (BounceBack/ReSorb or equivalent) - Over-the-counter product packaged in powered form. For rehydrating sick animals, regardless of age. Can be used as an oral drench, put into baby bottles for kids to suck, or mixed in drinking water. Each packet should be mixed with 1/2 gallon warm water. Use in conjunction with Lactated Ringers Solution on extremely dehydrated kids or adults. Store in a cool, dry place. Never be without this product.

Entrolyte - (Do not mistakenly purchase Entrolyte HE). Over-the-counter oral calf nutrient product packaged in powdered form. For rehydrating and providing nutrition to sick goats who are not ruminating or otherwise not eating. Contains 13+% protein in addition to electrolytes. Stomach tube this complete feed for goats off-feed. A 100 lb goat needs one gallon of fluids daily. Start slowly, dividing the dosages into two to four dosings. NOTE: As of January 2008, this product is no longer available from Pfizer. REPLACEMENT PRODUCT: Mix a package of electrolytes such as Bounce Back or ReSorb and add 8 to 12 oz milk replacer.

Epinephrine - Vet prescription. Used to treat Shock. Always have it on hand when giving injections. You will not have time to go get it. Dosage is 1 cc SQ or IM per 100 pounds body weight.

Excenel RTU - Prescription injectable antibiotic. Ready-to-use equivalent of Naxcel. Effective against respiratory and urinary tract infections. Dose daily at 6 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight. Day One: dose twice 12 hours apart. Days 2 through 5: dose once every day. I actually prefer Nuflor Gold over this product.

Ferrodex 200 iron injection - Injectable iron supplement for treating anemia. Interchangeable with oral Red Cell or oral Lixotinic.

Fleet's Enemas or generic equivalent - Over-the-counter product that is also useful for constipation and toxicity reactions to clean out the intestinal tract. If a doeling is born with her vagina turned inside out, use a children's Fleet's enema to move her bowels for the first time ("pass her plug") and the vagina will return to its proper position. Make sure to put the enema into the rectal opening . . . not the vagina.

Formalin (10% buffered formaldehyde) - Classified as a disinfectant, this product works well when injected into CL abscesses and also is very effective in treating hoof rot/hoof scald. Vets may recommend against using Formalin because this is off-label usage; if the producer doesn't use it properly, the vet might be held legally and financially responsible. See my articles on these topics on the Articles page at www.tennesseemeatgoats.com for usage and dosing instructions. I am now recommending not using Formalin but rather lancing and cleaning out abscesses because too many goat raisers are not using it correctly.

Fortified Vitamin B Complex - Over-the-counter product. This product can be used interchangeably with Thiamine when Thiamine alone is needed since it has 100 mg/mL thiamine in it. Products without "fortified" in the label have inadequate levels of thiamine present. If such products must be used, then the dosage must be increased to achieve a thiamine level of 100 mg/mL. Example: If the product has only 25 mg/mL, then the dosage given must be four times the "fortified" product's amount. B vitamins are water soluble; a healthy rumen produces B vitamins daily. B vitamins may be given to any sick goat. Use thiamine dosage.

Gentamycin Sulfate - Injectable prescription antibiotic. Not authorized for use in all jurisdictions in food animals due to concern for antibiotic build-up in meat. Works extremely well when used in conjunction with penicillin in the treatment of post-birthing infections and other bacterial infections. Mixed in equal parts with Dexamethazone and Sterile Water, the resulting product is a very effective eye spray for treating Pinkeye. Do not use on ulcerated eyes.

Gentosin Spray - Topical prescription spray useful in treating non-ulcerated eyes having Pinkeye. See Gentamycin Sulfate.

GoatADE - Oral quick energy supplement for stressed and/or off-feed goats. This product is sold by Register Distributing. (http://www.goatsupplies.netfirms.com). Contains many of the vitamins, minerals, and nutrients that a sick goat requires to survive its illness. Superior to NutriDrench. Mixes well with propylene glycol and mineral oil for flavored dosing. Furney Register can be reached at 1-888-310-9606.

Granulex - Topical spray for removing dead and dying skin. May be no longer available.

Immodium AD - Do NOT use this anti-diarrheal with goats. It can stop the peristaltic action of the gut, causing rapid and painful death.

Ivomec 1% injectable dewormer - Over-the-counter product for eliminating stomach worms. This clear liquid works best if used orally at a rate of 1 cc per 50 lbs. body weight. Do not under-dose. Store at cool temperature and keep out of sunlight. Achieves a quicker "kill" via oral dosing. Also used in treatment of Meningeal Deerworm Infection. Clear dewormers do not kill tapeworms. Ivermectin 1% is one of several dewormers used to kill stomach worms.

LA 200, Maxim 200, Biomycin (oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml) - Over-the-counter broad-spectrum antibiotic. Thick (use an 18 gauge needle and give SQ over the ribs) and may sting. Oxytretracycline 200 mg/mL must be used to treat abortion "storms." No vaccines are available to treat abortion diseases in goats and no off-label vaccines are effective in preventing abortion diseases in goats. Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is the goat producer's only choice. Also used to treat Pinkeye, even in pregnant does, as an abortion organism can cause one strain of Pinkeye. Used both injectably for all Pinkeye and topically (in non-ulcerated eyes) for Pinkeye. Sometimes effective in treating hoof rot/hoof scald infections. Use 1 cc per 20 lbs. body weight SQ daily for a minimum of five consecutive days. The non-sting version of oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is called Biomycin. Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml is sold under several brand names; check the content label for correct 200 mg/ml strength. Turns a dark red when opened and air enters the bottle, but if kept under controlled climatic conditions and used before the expiration date, it should work fine.

Lactated Ringers Solution - Vet prescription. For rehydrating kids and young goats. Comes in IV bag but use SQ. Using a 60 cc syringe with an 18 gauge needle attached, draw up LRS, warm in a pot of water, check temperature as you would a bottle of milk for proper heat, and inject 30 cc under the skin (SQ) at each shoulder. Can be used several times a day until the goat's electrolytes are in balance. Will be absorbed by the goat's body very quickly if dehydration is present. Never be without this inexpensive life-saving product. Can be used in conjunction with oral electrolytes (BounceBack/ReSorb). Refrigerate when storing.

Lime sulphur dip 97.8%. Used topically for mites and staph infections on the skin.

Lutalyse -- Prescription injectable. Used to cycle does into heat or induce abortion in doe accidentally bred to wrong buck. Give 2 cc on the seventh (7th) day after observed breeding. Do not repeat.

Masti-Clear - Procaine-penicillin-based teat infusion for lactating does for treating mastitis.

Micotil - Never use Micotil with goats. This cattle antibiotic causes immediate heart attack and death in goats.

Milk of Magnesia - Over-the-counter laxative product that is useful for constipation and toxicity reactions (to move toxic materials through and out of the body), including bloat, overeating disease, and Floppy Kid Syndrome. Use as oral drench at a rate of 15 cc per 60 lbs. body weight every four to six hours until the feces goes from normal to clumpy then back to normal 'pills.' Always keep the animal hydrated with electrolytes (BounceBack/ReSorb or equivalent) when using Milk of Magnesia or other laxatives. Useful with mastitis by increasing magnesium levels in goat's body. Keep MoM on hand at all times.

Mineral Max (MultiMin) - Vet prescription. Cobalt-blue colored injectable liquid that must be used very sparingly in goats suffering from severe mineral deficiencies. Help with weak labor contractions. Overdosing is easy - builds up in fatty tissues.

Mineral Oil - Over-the-counter laxative product. Because mineral oil has no taste, a goat's throat does not recognize mineral oil as a substance to be swallowed; this product can easily be aspirated into the lungs. Must be stomach tubed. If stomach tube is not immediately available, mix mineral oil with GoatADE to flavor it and very carefully and slowly orally drench it into the goat's mouth.

Molasses/Karo Syrup - Use orally with kids when quick energy is needed. Can be substituted for propylene glycol when treating ketotic does.

Kopertox - Over-the-counter product for hoof rot and hoof scald. Blue-green liquid for topical application as a "liquid bandage." Applied topically to the hoof and used in conjunction with Oxytetracycline 200 mg/ml injections.

Nasalgen IP - Intra-nasal vaccine of short duration. I administer to goats when shipping.

Naxcel (ceftiofur sodium) - Vet prescription. Broad-spectrum antibiotic used primarily at Onion Creek Ranch for respiratory illnesses (pneumonia). Comes in two bottles . . . one bottle contains a powder which must be kept refrigerated even while in powder form, and the other bottle is sterile water. When the two are mixed, they keep for only seven days. Draw syringes in dosages of 1/2 cc, 1 cc, 2 cc, and 3 cc, put needle caps on them, place the filled syringes in a ziplock bag, label and date it, and put the bag in the freezer. Syringes thaw quickly, but hold the needle cap upright, because the medication will settle into the needle cap and will be lost when the needle cap is removed. . Dosages on the bottle are insufficient for goats. If newborn kids have respiratory distress or E.Coli infections, they must receive a minimum dosage IM of 1/2 cc daily for five consecutive days. A 100 pound goat needs at least 5-6 cc of Naxcel IM over the five-day course of treatment. FORMERLY used at Onion Creek Ranch . . . . I no longer use Naxcel but instead use Excenel RTU, the ready-to-use equivalent product that doesn't require refrigeration or mixing, or Nuflor Gold.

Niacin (Vitamin B3) - Give 1000 mg daily orally (crushed/dissolved) to does having weak labor contractions until kidding occurs.

Nolvasan - Bolus used inside uterus after difficult delivery to prevent metritis or vaginitis.

Nuflor Gold (florfenicol) - Vet prescription. Excellent respiratory antibiotic that is also used to try to prevent mastitis from becoming systemic. I tend to use Nuflor on adults and Excenel RTU on kids, but they are interchangeable. Administered IM every day for a maximum of five injections. This is a very thick liquid, so use Luer Lock syringes, or the needle may blow off the syringe, wasting the medicine. Dosage is 6 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight and is administered for five consecutive days; newborn kids needing this antibiotic should receive no less than 1/2 cc. Keeps best under refrigeration in warm climates. NOTE: Because goats have the fastest metabolism of all ruminants, off-label medications that state every-other-day usage or one-time usage do not work. Goats must have daily administrations of medications.

Oxytocin - Vet prescription. Used at Onion Creek Ranch when a doe kids and does not pass her afterbirth within 24-36 hours of kidding. Dosage is 1.5 cc per 100 lbs. body weight. In warm climates, keeps best when refrigerated.

Penicillin, Benzathine (long-acting penicillin) - This over-the-counter antibiotic has been overused for years and is no longer effective against some illnesses. Dosage is 5 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM for five consecutive days. Must be refrigerated. Do NOT use this type of penicillin when Listeriosis or Goat Polio is the suspected illness. I don't keep this type of penicillin in stock any longer.

Penicillin, Procaine (300,000 IU) - Procaine Penicillin must be used in high dosages in conjunction with Thiamine (Vitamin B1) in the treatment of Listeriosis and Goat Polio. Also is used to treat infection resulting from injuries, bites, and after difficult birthings. Over-the-counter product. Must be refrigerated. Always have this product on hand.

Peppermint Oil Cream (Cai-Pan) - Topical application to congested and/or mastitic udders.

Pepto Bismol (pink bismuth) - Over-the-counter product to help with irritation/distress caused by diarrhea in both kids and adults. Use up to 2 cc every four to six hours for newborns; 5 cc for kids approaching one month old; as much as 10 to 15 cc for adults. Before using Pepto-Bismol when diarrhea is present, first determine the cause of the problem. See my article on Diarrhea on my website's Articles page: http://www.tennesseemeatgoats.com. Follow up with oral ruminant probiotics to repopulate the gastro-intestinal tract (gut) with live bacteria needed for digestion. Do not use Immodium AD to control diarrhea in goats; it can stop the peristaltic action of the gut and cause death.

Pirsue - Vet prescription mastitis medication. Expensive but excellent product.

Pneumonia Vaccines- Presponse HM and Poly Bac Somnus - Both vaccines are newer than and in my opinion afford better protection against pneumonia than the Colorado Serum product mentioned below; they are also more expensive. Dosage is 1 cc for goats under 60 lbs and 2 cc for goats over 60 lbs, with a two-injection series 21 days apart the first time and annually thereafter. The extra cost is reduced by the lesser amount of vaccine needed for the 60 lb & under goats.

Pneumonia Vaccine (Mannheimia Haemolytica Pasteurella Multocida Bacterin) - Over-the-counter injectable pneumonia vaccine by Colorado Serum. Made for goats. Requires two initial injections of 2 cc each 30 days apart for all young goats and any new purchases brought onto the property, then booster annually thereafter. Follow bottle directions. Give first injection at one month of age in conjunction with first deworming and first CD/T vaccination. Repeat at two months of age, then annually thereafter. Dosage is 2 cc for all goats, regardless of age, sex, weight, or breed.

Polyserum or Bovi Sera - Over-the-counter injectable immune system boosters. Given SQ. Advisable to use with any ill goat.

Primor - Vet prescription. Oral sulfa-based antibiotic. Tablets sized by weight of animal for gut-related infections, including Coccidiosis. Tablets are scored for easy breaking to fit appropriate weight of sick animal. Primor 120 is for 5-15 lb goats; Primor 240, 10-30 lb goats; Primor 600, 25-50 lb goats; and Primor 1200, 50-100 lb goats. Give two times the appropriate weight's dosage the first day, and then dose to the goat's weight for the next 9 consecutive days.

Probiotics, Oral - Over-the-counter oral ruminant gel which should be used in conjunction with antibiotic therapy, treatment for diarrhea (scours), and when shipping goats. Take along several tubes and administer it to each animal at least once per day during the journey. Helps lessen stress and settle the stomach. Probios is a well-known brand name. Keep refrigerated in warm climates.

Propylene Glycol - Over-the-counter clear oily liquid for ketosis in does. Provides quick energy. Comes in one-gallon containers. Use 50-60 cc twice a day for an average-sized adult doe until she begins eating again. Administer orally very slowly and best if mixed with GoatADE for flavor so the goat can taste it and know to swallow. If this product is not available, use molasses or Karo syrup. Freezes at temperatures well above 32*F, so store indoors under controlled temperature.

Rally or Recovr - Injectable antihistamine for toxicity problems. Vet prescription.

Red Cell - Over-the-counter oral iron supplement made for horses. Use in treating anemia. Interchangeable in usage with oral Lixotinic or Ferrodex 100 iron injections.

Safeguard (Panacur) dewormer - Another "white" dewormer. Currently worthless in killing stomach worms in most areas, despite claims on label. Kills tapeworms.

Spectam Scour Halt - Over-the-counter sulfa-based antibiotic product to control diarrhea in kids. Scour Halt is a pig scour medication which works well on goat kids. Usage with adult goats may cause cessation of peristaltic action of the gut. Follow label directions when pumping this pinkish-red liquid into the goat's mouth. Follow up with oral ruminant gel to repopulate the gut with live bacteria necessary for food digestion.

Sterile Water - Vet prescription. Used in mixing medications.

Sulfadimethoxazine with Trimethoprim (SMZ) - Sulfa-based oral prescription antibiotic. Available in both liquid and tablets. Use to treat watery diarrhea and other gut-related illnesses. Used with Baytril 100, SMZ is synergistic (better than by itself) in treating E Coli and other difficult to cure infections. Excellent product.

Synergized DeLice or generic equivalent - Over-the-counter product. Permethrin is the active ingredient in this oily product which should be applied along the backbone from base of neck to base of tail. (This back drench works on goats because external parasites are the target; back drenches don't work for treating internal parasites such as stomach worms.) Follow the directions carefully, and do not use on kids under 3 months of age and pregnant does. Maximum application is three ounces per animal, regardless of weight. Use a discarded permanent squeeze bottle to apply this product; beauty shops will save them for you. The bottle tip is just the right size. For kids under three months of age and pregnant does, use a kitten-safe or puppy-safe powdered flea control product or carefully apply 5% Sevin dust. These products contain pyrethrins, which are much safer for very young animals. Cylence is another topical product used to kill lice.

Tagamet - Over-the-counter product. Use in conjunction with Primor for gut-related pain resulting from illnesses like coccidiosis. Dosage is one half of a Tagamet HR200 (200 mg) for 3-5 days.

Terramycin - Over-the-counter product. Opthalmic ointment used to treat Pinkeye, particularly in ulcerated eyes.

Tetanus Antitoxin - Over-the-counter product for immediate and short-term protection against tetanus (lockjaw). Tetanus is fatal if not promptly treated. Comes in single-dose vials; use the entire vial IM for adults; cut it back proportionately for kids. No sooner than five days after this medication is last used, you must re-vaccinate with tetanus toxoid or CD/T (the complete two-injection series given 30 days apart) to reinstate long-term protection. Keep refrigerated.

Theodur - Vet prescription. Often used when bronchitis exists to clear air passages. Precise dosage is not known for goats, but I have, under vet direction and supervision, used 1/2 tablet per day on a 15-20 pound kid. Theodur suppresses the appetite; the producer must make sure that the animal is kept hydrated.

Thiamine (Vitamin B1) - Vet prescription. Used in conjunction with large dosages of antibiotics to treat listeriosis and goat polio, diseases which demand veterinary assistance or death is highly likely. Moldy feed and hay cause these illnesses. Dosage is 4 cc per 100 pounds bodyweight up to three times per day IM, or SQ. Keeps best in warm climates when refrigerated.

Thrush Buster - Thrush prevention/Treatment - topical product that prevents and treats hoof scald (between toes).

ToDay (cephapirin sodium) Over-the-counter product for mastitis treatment in lactating does. Milk out the bad milk/pus/blood and infuse one tube of To-Day into each infected udder for a minimum of two consecutive days. Use the alcohol wipe provided to clean the teat thoroughly before infusing medication to avoid introducing new bacteria into an already-infected udder.

ToMorrow (cephapirin benzathine) - Over-the-counter product for mastitis treatment in dry does.

Triple Antibiotic Opthalmic Ointment - Vet prescription. Use topically to treat Pinkeye, particularly in ulcerated eyes.

Tylan 200 (tylosin) - Over-the-counter antibiotic for respiratory problems. Use 1 cc per 25 lbs. body weight for five consecutive days intramuscularly (IM). Keeps best in warm climates when refrigerated. The prescription products Nuflor Gold and Excenel RTU are far more effective than Tylan 200. I no longer keep this product on hand.

Universal Animal Antidote Gel - Give orally when toxicity is suspected or diagnosed.

Valbazen - Over-the-counter "white" dewormer. Can cause abortions in pregnant does at certain points in the pregnancy (high risk of abortion if used in first trimester of pregnancy). For safety, never use on pregnant does. "White" dewormers kill tapeworms. Dosage is 1 cc per 25 lbs. bodyweight given orally.

Vitamin B-12 - Vet prescription. This red-colored injectable liquid is essential for use with goats who are anemic from worms or stressed from just about any illness. Administer 4 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM. Keeps best refrigerated.

This listing is not comprehensive, but is a good overview of medications available for goat health problems. I repeat . . . I am NOT a vet. I do NOT encourage anyone to use these products and/or dosages without supervision and direction of a veterinarian. I encourage goat producers to find a qualified goat vet and develop a working relationship with that professional. This is what has worked for me with my goats. Many variables can affect the usefulness of this information, some of which may include breed, sex, age, nutritional and reproductive status of the goat, climatic conditions and general cleanliness under which the goats live, knowledge and skills possessed by the goat producer, and a host of other items. Consider this listing to be a guide by which you are pointed to a qualified vet in order to obtain help for YOUR animals. Remember, what works for me may NOT work for you in your goat-production operation.

Suzanne W. Gasparotto, ONION CREEK RANCH, Texas 8/7/13

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All information provided in these articles is based either on personal experience or information provided by others whose treatments and practices have been discussed fully with a vet for accuracy and effectiveness before passing them on to readers.

In all cases, it is your responsibility to obtain veterinary services and advice before using any of the information provided in these articles. Suzanne Gasparotto is not a veterinarian.Neither tennesseemeatgoats.com nor any of the contributors to this website will be held responsible for the use of any information contained herein.

The author, Suzanne Gasparotto, hereby grants to local goat publications and club newsletters, permission to reprint articles published on the Onion Creek Ranch website under these conditions: THE ARTICLE MUST BE REPRODUCED IN ITS ENTIRETY AND THE AUTHOR'S NAME, ADDRESS, AND CONTACT INFORMATION MUST BE INCLUDED AT THE BEGINNING OF THE REPRINT. We would appreciate notification from any clubs or publications when the articles are used. (A copy of the newsletter or publication would also be a welcome addition to our growing library of goat related information!)

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